All about turnips - a tasty and healthy vegetable for its vitamin, dietary and medicinal properties
Turnip (Brassica rapa) is the oldest vegetable crop in Europe and Asia, which has and was of great importance in human nutrition, especially before the spread of potatoes. Long before our era, in Greece, young turnips were eaten, and the overgrown and surplus crops were fed to domestic animals and birds.
For a long time, turnips have also been cultivated in the Nordic countries. She came to Russia from Greece, as evidenced by her Greek name, which means "rapidly growing". They began to sow turnips on the territory of Ancient Russia at the beginning of the development of agriculture. It is mentioned in documents from the 14th century. Turnip was very important in the nutrition of the population before the spread of potato culture in the forest and forest-steppe zones.
It is known that until the 18th century, the Finnish and Russian (in the northern regions) population fermented turnip leaves for cooking cabbage soup. The fields where it was sown were called "repish". At the beginning of the 20th century, turnips were also grown in Russia as a forage crop. Since then, in our country there has been a double name: less productive table varieties are called in the old way turnips, and more productive ones used for feed are called turnips (this word is borrowed from the English language).
Currently, in India, China, Japan, salads, soups are prepared from turnip leaves, in addition, they are salted. In the United States, they are frozen and canned for sale. They also believe that turnip roots are the most valuable source of vitamin C, and its leaves are the cheapest product for obtaining carotene. In our country, turnip has a relatively small share in production, but is widely used by amateur vegetable growers.
Due to the high demand of this crop for the presence of nutrients in the soil, it is placed after crops under which organic and mineral fertilizers were applied. The best predecessors for turnips are: cucumber, zucchini, tomato and legumes, as well as potatoes, corn, winter cereals and clover of 1-2 years of use. To prevent damage to plants by pests and diseases, they must be returned to their original place no earlier than four years later.
Soil cultivation helps to loosen the arable layer, plays an important role in the fight against weeds, diseases and plant pests. Soil preparation depends entirely on the timing of sowing turnip, type of soil, predecessor (crop occupying the site a year before sowing turnip), weeds.
The autumn processing of the site, on which earlier crops were grown (lettuce, dill, zucchini, cucumber, tomato), begins with the removal of plant residues, raking them from the soil surface with a rake. This loosening promotes germination of weed seeds and prevents the soil from drying out. 15-20 days after the emergence of weed plants, the soil is dug up to the full depth of the humus horizon. Areas vacated after late crops (beets, carrots, parsley, celery, parsnips) are dug up immediately after harvesting. At the same time, a prerequisite for the successful cultivation of any crop, including turnips, will be the careful removal of plant residues, on which pests and pathogens often remain. After the potatoes, which were removed, the soil was thoroughly dug up, autumn processing, as a rule, is not done.
If the soils are littered with perennial rhizomatous (creeping wheatgrass) and root-sprouting (field thistle, bristly thistle, small sorrel), it is necessary to loosen twice to a depth of 4-6 cm with an interval between them of 7-10 days. For this, it is very good to use various flat cutters, hoes; on light soils - you can rake. As a result, the germination of weed seeds, as well as their vegetative reproductive organs, is provoked. 1-2 weeks after the second loosening, the site is dug to a depth of 20-25 cm.
Spring tillage for turnips should be started with harrowing to a depth of 3-5 cm using a rake. The earlier this work is carried out, the greater its effectiveness, since the upper part of the capillaries is destroyed, which protects the soil from moisture loss.
This technique is called: loosening in order to close the moisture. When the soil is ripe, the site is dug up to 3/4 of the depth of the autumn digging, beds are made and carefully leveled. This is necessary primarily to protect the soil from drying out. In moderately moist soils with a deep arable layer, turnips can be grown on a flat surface. In waterlogged areas with a shallow humus horizon, it is imperative to prepare ridges. Their height is 20-25 cm. In this case, the soil warms up better, the thickness of the fertile layer increases, which contributes to better development of the root system, and during the rainy season the plants do not get wet. Considering that the turnip seeds are small and are planted at a shallow depth, it is recommended to slightly compact the soil surface before sowing. This ensures uniform seeding of seeds, improves their contact with the soil, and also helps to "pull" moisture from the lower layers.
Organic fertilizers have a significant impact on the yield of turnip root crops. It is best to bring them under the previous culture. It is impossible to bring fresh straw manure directly under the turnip, as this leads to the appearance of ugly, hollow root crops, a decrease in their keeping quality during long-term storage. In addition, fresh manure, bird droppings, and even more fecal fertilizers and composts from them, can be a source of infectious diseases, as well as contain eggs and larvae of worms. These fertilizers can be used for all vegetable crops, especially for root crops, not earlier than in 1-2 years. If the soils are poor in organic matter, you have not applied these fertilizers for a long time, you can refuel in the amount of 3-4 kg of humus for the main processing.
The application rates of mineral fertilizers depend on a number of factors: soil fertility, timing of application, types of fertilizers, etc. On average, the following doses of these fertilizers are recommended in g per 1 m²: ammonium nitrate - 15-20, double superphosphate - 15-20, potassium salt - 30-40 g. It is better to add potassium salt to turnip than other potash fertilizers. The thing is that, in addition to potassium chloride, it contains, like no other fertilizer, sodium chloride. Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied: 2/3 of the recommended dose - in the fall for digging, and 1/3 - in the spring for pre-sowing treatment. Nitrogen fertilizers are usually applied in spring and when feeding. Concentrated complex mineral fertilizers have proven themselves very well. The most valuable of them are nitroammofosk, Kemir, azofosk, nitrophoska. These fertilizers contain nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium - that is, all the macronutrients needed to get a good harvest of root crops. They are brought in during the spring filling of the soil.
When used under the turnip ash, it is brought under the digging of the site in the amount of 100-150 g / m². Then you need to add nitrogen fertilizers. The most effective of them on poor soils is ammonium nitrate in the amount of 10-20 g / m².
Acidic soils definitely need liming. This not only eliminates the negative effect of excessive acidity, but also saturates the soil with calcium, increases the efficiency of mineral fertilizers and inhibits the vital activity of harmful microorganisms. The dose of lime per 1 g / m² when applied on acidic heavy soils is 1-1.2 kg, on light weakly acidic soils - 0.4-0.5 kg. Smaller doses of calcareous materials do not give the desired effect. Lime materials are more often applied under the predecessor. They are not recommended to be applied simultaneously with organic fertilizers, especially with manure, as this loses a significant proportion of nitrogen. The most favorable time for liming is autumn-winter, since until spring lime will have an effect already in the first year after application. You can scatter lime over the snow. The last liming period is 2-3 weeks before sowing the seeds.
The varieties differ not only in the color of the pulp, but also in the color of the peel, the nature of its surface, and the shape of the root crop. They also differ in early maturity, yield, content of nutrients and vitamins, hardness and taste of pulp, keeping quality, ability to preserve pulp during storage, resistance to keel and other diseases, as well as pests.
Five varieties of turnips are officially registered in our State Register: Geisha, Lira, Petrovskaya 1, Sapphire, Snegurochka. The most famous is the old Russian variety Petrovskaya (it is also called Voshchanka), which is one of the best in taste.
Seed preparation and sowing of turnips
To obtain friendly shoots, it is necessary to carefully prepare the seeds for sowing. When sizing, small and shrunken seeds are removed, which, as a rule, are not germinating. Seeds of uniform size ensure friendly and uniform germination. For thermal disinfection, which avoids the use of pesticides, seeds are soaked for 30 minutes at a temperature of +45 ... + 50 ° C. Then the water is drained, and the seeds are dried to a free-flowing state. This work can be done in advance, before leaving for the country. An indispensable condition in this case should be thorough drying of the seeds at a temperature not higher than + 30 ° C and their storage before sowing in a dry, cool room.
Effectively soaking seeds at room temperature in solutions of microelements: boric acid, copper sulfate, manganese sulfate and ammonium molybdenum at a concentration of 0.1% of each drug. You can make a mixture of these micronutrients and add a 0.2% superphosphate extract to them. This solution is consumed at the rate of 1 g of seeds - 1 ml of liquid.
Sowing dates may vary. For early production, turnips are sown in early spring, as soon as the soil is ready.
For autumn and winter consumption - in late spring and summer, in such a way that the roots are ripe before frost, but not overgrown, retain their juiciness and are ready for winter storage. With spring sowing and at the end of summer, turnip ripens in 60-75 days. Summer sowing is most often carried out in early to mid-July (on Peter's day - that is why the best variety of popular turnip is named so). When choosing the timing of sowing, the summer time of dangerous pests - cruciferous fleas and cabbage flies - is also taken into account in order to avoid severe damage to young plants. When sowing in late April-early May and in the middle of summer, it is possible to avoid the mass distribution of these pests.
In the conditions of the garden, turnips are sown by hand. Sowing on the ridges is done both along them and across. It is not the direction of the rows relative to the beds that is important, but their location relative to the cardinal points. It has been noticed that plants develop better when the rows are oriented from north to south. Then they are evenly illuminated throughout the day, do not shade each other and, as a result, by the time of harvesting, they form relatively identical roots. When placing rows along the beds, 3-4 rows are sown with a distance of 25-30 cm between them.When the rows are transversely arranged, the distance between them is 30-35 cm.Seeds are sealed when sowing on cohesive soils to a depth of 0.5-1 cm, on lungs - no more than 1.5-2 cm. 0.1-0.2 g of seeds are consumed per 1 m². To ensure an even distribution of seeds along the row, river sand or even dry soil is most often added to them as ballast.
Turnip crop care
Like most vegetable crops, turnips need timely and high-quality care. It is especially important to carry out pre-emergence loosening to a depth of 3-5 cm. This agricultural technique allows you to destroy the soil crust, which often appears after the last rain. It is dangerous for germinating seeds, since seedlings cannot break through the compacted, sticky top of the soil and often die. When a crust appears before germination, the soil must be immediately loosened with a light rake, taking care not to damage the cultivated plants.
To combat weeds, up to 4-6 loosening of row spacings are carried out over the summer. The first inter-row cultivation is done shortly after germination. The depth of loosening and their number depend on the soil and climatic conditions. If the soils are light, loosening is carried out finer than on heavy ones. On soils prone to drying out, they loosen less often than on wet ones. In order not to damage the root system of plants, the depth of loosening near them is shallower than in the middle of the row spacings. With frequent loosening of row spacings, there is no need for weeding. Only to remove weeds in rows do 1-2 weeding.
To obtain a high yield of turnip, it is necessary to timely and efficiently thin out the plants in the rows. With a delay in this work, young seedlings are stretched out, oppressed, which ultimately affects the size, quality and timing of the harvest. The first thinning is carried out one and a half to two weeks after the emergence of shoots, the second - one and a half to two weeks after the first. Thinning of seedlings is usually combined with weeding of plants in rows. It is advisable to thin out immediately after rain, when the soil is moist enough so that they are better removed from the soil and do not damage the roots of neighboring ones, which are left for further growth. In its absence, it is necessary to water the soil thoroughly.
The first thinning is done by the bunching method (with the help of a hoe, part of the seedlings in a row is cut down, leaving bunches of plants). After the second, carried out manually, the best, typical plants are left with a distance of 6-10 cm between them. With uniform sowing with a small seeding rate, turnips can be grown without a second manual thinning, but the yield will be more heterogeneous in size root crops. As a rule, removed turnip plants are not planted in places of attacks - it does not take root well.
To obtain root crops with good taste with a moisture deficit in the soil, it is necessary to water 3-4 times during the growing season. It is most responsive to watering turnip during periods of 3-4 true leaves, the beginning of thickening of root crops and a month before the start of harvesting. To reduce water losses for evaporation, irrigation is recommended to be done in the afternoon, late afternoon, or in the evening.
Obtaining a high yield of root crops is possible with timely and high-quality fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers. The first feeding is done after the first thinning. At this time, the plants are given a complete mineral complex in an easily accessible form. It is recommended to make the first feeding with organic fertilizers: slurry 1: 3; mullein 1:10; bird droppings 1:15. However, such feeding does not meet the sanitary requirements. Therefore, it is better to make the first feeding with composted grass - "live manure", diluted 1: 3 or 1: 4. One bucket of prepared solution is enough for 3-5 m². At this time, the plants are still small. Fertilizing with organic fertilizers promotes intensive growth, increases resistance to adverse environmental conditions and, in addition, repels pests.
In the absence of organic matter, fertilizing can be done with mineral fertilizers, for this, 1 m² is applied: ammonium nitrate - 5-10 g; superphosphate - 10-15 g and potassium chloride - 5-10 g. You can use combined fertilizers: Kemira, nitrophoska, azofoska, ecofoska in the amount of 20-30 g (tablespoon) per 1 m².The specified amount of fertilizers is dissolved in water and 0.1% of ammonium molybdate and 0.02% of boric acid are added to them. The second top dressing is done with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. With dry top dressing, fertilizers are scattered over the soil surface, trying not to get them on the leaves and, especially, on the growing point, and then, with the help of a hoe, they are embedded in the soil. To protect young turnip plants from pests (cruciferous flea beetles), you can powder the turnip with tobacco dust, lime or ash at their first appearance.
Turnips are harvested for summer consumption selectively, as the required size of root crops is formed. The first harvests are possible when the root crops reach a diameter of 4-5 cm. Such root crops have a juicy, tender pulp, rich in vitamins.
The first harvests of turnips can be obtained even earlier, with "bundle" ripeness of plants, when the roots reach a diameter of 3-4 cm. At this time, the final thinning of the plants is done. For winter storage, the size of the root crops must be at least 6-8 cm.
Harvest in the fall is harvested in one step, preventing freezing of root crops, otherwise the turnip will be poorly stored. Harvested in sunny weather to store dry root vegetables. You cannot leave the roots pulled out of the soil with tops for a long time - a significant amount of moisture evaporates through the leaves, and the roots wither quickly, which negatively affects storage. Cracked, damaged by keel, bacteriosis and dry rot, as well as unripe and overgrown (very large, cracked, ribbed) root crops are not suitable for winter storage. Store turnips in boxes at a temperature of 0 ... + 1 ° C. At a higher temperature, the intensity of respiration increases and an excess amount of nutrients is consumed, turgor is lost, which favors the development of microorganisms. The optimum humidity in the room during storage of turnips is 90-95%.
Read the continuation of the article - Biology of turnip development and its relation to environmental conditions
candidate of agricultural sciences
Seed disinfection methods before planting
Methods for disinfecting vegetable seeds before planting are usually divided into two groups: dry disinfection and wet disinfection.
The simplest dry disinfection seed is held in the open sun for a week. During solar disinfection, the seeds are periodically agitated and stirred on a plate or saucer. The method is reliable for seeds of cucumber, pumpkin and other pumpkin crops of beets, rutabagas and turnips, especially if the seeds have been stored for a long time in a cold room. The sun stimulates seeds to germinate and kills microorganisms.
At home, seeds can be irradiated with an ultraviolet lamp.
For dry disinfection of seeds, you can use special preparations - fungicides. Fungicides are sprayed over the seeds, or dry seeds are poured into a bag with the drug. The procedure is not safe for health, therefore, respiratory protection must be used.
For wet disinfection seeds have long been used solutions of potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide, boric acid or copper sulfate.
For wet disinfection of seeds, many gardeners still, like our grandfathers, use a solution of potassium permanganate, although some experts are rather skeptical about this method.
The potassium permanganate solution should be more black than pink
Potassium permanganate solution to disinfect the seeds, the concentration must be correct. You should know that 6 grams of potassium permanganate is placed in one teaspoon without top. Knowing this, it is easy to prepare the required concentration by simply stirring a teaspoon of potassium permanganate without top in 600 ml of water, if a 1% solution is required.
Modes of seed treatment with potassium permanganate:
- Seeds of tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, celery, lettuce, radish, beans, peas, beans are processed in 1% (black-pink) solution of potassium permanganate at a temperature of + 20-25 ° C for and then washed in water
- Seeds of eggplant, pepper, cabbage, carrots, pumpkin crops, dill are disinfected in a strong 1.5% (black-purple) potassium permanganate solution for 20 minutes, followed by washing the seeds with water.
A weak solution of potassium permanganate does not disinfect the seeds, so if the bottom of the dishes shines through the solution, then it makes no sense to use it for disinfection.
Acetic acid (1% solution) is also suitable for neutralizing harmful microflora on the surface of seeds. It is enough to soak the seeds in a vinegar solution for 2 hours and then rinse thoroughly with water.
Hydrogen peroxide can replace potassium permanganate if necessary. For disinfection use 3% a solution of hydrogen peroxide heated to + 35-40 ° C. Seeds are poured into a warm solution for 10 minutes, while the solution should cover the seeds. Dishes should be any, except for metal dishes.
Hydrogen peroxide 3% can be used for wet disinfection of seeds before planting
Boric acid and copper sulfate used in the field, but no less effective than previous fluids. Tomato seeds are disinfected in a solution of boric acid (0.2 grams per 1 liter of water) or copper sulfate (0.1 grams per 1 liter of water). This treatment also fully protects tomatoes from disease. Stuck together tomato seeds must be separated from each other for effective disinfection.
Aloe juice protects seeds from bacterial infections. The leaves of indoor aloe plants are kept in the dark at + 2 ° C for a week, squeezed out the juice, and then diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio. The seeds are kept in aloe solution for 1 day.
Agrotechnology for growing turnip consists in proper tillage and timely thinning of seedlings. Thin the turnips that are grown for root crops as soon as the seedlings are large enough to process. Do this in stages until the plants are 25 cm apart for the main crop varieties, or 15 cm for the early ones. Do not thin out turnips that are grown for greens. Loosen the soil with the hoe around the plants, water during dry weather. You will grow a gorgeous turnip that has been cultivated and cared for with this plant in mind.
Early varieties are pulled out of the ground instead of being dug out with a pitchfork. Remove the root vegetables while they are still small - about the size of a golf ball if they need to be eaten raw, or about the size of a tennis ball if they need to be cooked.
Start digging up your main crop turnips as soon as they are large enough to be used. Harvesting usually begins in October, and in most areas you can leave the roots in the ground and dig as needed. In cold and damp areas, it is preferable to dig them up in early November for storage - unscrew the leaves and place the roots between layers of sand in a sturdy box. Store in a cool shed.
In March or April, cut the tops of the turnips grown for spring greens when they reach a height of about 15 cm. Leave the roots to regrow - several cuts may be obtained.
Winter sowing of garlic - E-beds. Garden Garden. Agrotechnics of natural farming. We grow potatoes, garlic, pumpkins, zucchini, cucumbers, mushrooms, strawberries
Sowing in the winter will provide early harvests. The crops sown in the first frosts ripen in the spring half a month earlier than those sown in the spring, and the seedlings at the "winter roads" are denser and more friendly. In the first frosts, you can plant carrots, parsley, radishes, lettuce, beets, celery, spinach, sorrel, i.e. all root vegetables and greens. Moreover, the snowier the winter, the better the spring harvest.
A bed for winter sowing is prepared in advance, before the cold weather. Before sowing, the soil is thoroughly loosened and top dressing is added: humus, furnace ash, phosphorus and potassium are added.
Sowing usually begins under Pokrov (November 14), or when pre-winter weather is already established and the temperature rarely rises above 0 ° С ... But for sowing, they choose a warmer day, preferably sunny.
When sowing in winter, the bed must be dug deeper than in spring. Along the bed, grooves are made with a depth and width of about 3 cm, seeds are sealed there and covered with peat on top - it will retain heat, allow the seeds to swell to real frosts and winter in this form until spring
When sowing under winter sowing, one and a half times more seeds should be taken into the ground than with ordinary spring sowing. It is better to choose those that are cold-resistant varieties. It is necessary to ensure that in winter the bed with pre-winter plantings is well covered with a snow blanket, otherwise all the seeds will freeze.
Winter garlic is the first to be planted in the autumn vegetable garden. It is better to do this in the third decade of September until the second decade of October.
We prepare a bed for garlic 1-1.5 months before planting - in the first or second decades of August.
Garlic grows best on fertile loamy soils with a neutral or slightly acidic reaction (pH 6.5-7), rich in organic matter. The garden bed is made in a sunny, well-warmed place that is not flooded with melt water (otherwise the garlic will get wet in spring).
The best predecessors are cucumber, zucchini, pumpkin, early cabbage, summer turnip and radish varieties, legumes and greens, crops. Earlier than after 3-4 years, you should not plant garlic where onions or garlic grew.
A bucket of humus or compost and 1 tbsp / m2 of superphosphate and potassium sulfate are added to the garden bed. For the prevention of stem nematode, the bed must be calcified: 2 tbsp / sq.m of chalk. All introduced substances are sealed to a depth of 18-20 cm, the bed is leveled and treated with a solution of copper sulfate (1 ST.L. / 10 l of water) - 1 l / sq.m. This will protect the garlic from fusarium.
Before planting the garlic, it is useful to regularly loosen the ridge - to destroy weeds and accumulate moisture.
Freshly harvested winter garlic is used for autumn planting. The teeth should be large, 12-14 g each, without flaws.
Before planting, be sure to disinfect the planting material to be completely sure that it is not infected with the dangerous pest of garlic - the mite. In the presence of a tick, depressed yellowish ulcers become noticeable on the lobules of the head. When planted, the infected bulbs grow twisted plants with corrugated leaves.
Soak the garlic in a mild solution of any insecticide. Rinse the teeth for 1-2 minutes immediately before planting. in a solution of sodium chloride (3 tablespoons of salt per 5 L of water). Then transfer them for 1 min into a solution of copper sulfate (1 Tbsp of copper sulfate is diluted in 10 liters of water). After that, without rinsing with water, plant.
There are other ways to prepare garlic cloves for fall planting:
1. Before planting, the cloves of garlic are soaked for 8-12 hours in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Planting pattern: 8 cm between cloves in a row and 20 cm between rows. Planting depth 8-9cm.
2. Before planting, the cloves of garlic are soaked for 10-12 hours in an ash-salt solution of potassium permanganate with the addition of copper sulfate.
The composition of this mixture: for one liter of water 1 tbsp. spoon of wood ash, 1 tbsp. a spoonful of salt, 1 teaspoon of copper sulfate, 1/3 teaspoon of potassium permanganate.
3. Before planting, the cloves of garlic are kept for 1 hour in an ash solution. To prepare it, two glasses of sifted wood ash must be boiled in 2 liters of water. Cool, clarify, drain the clarified part and hold the garlic cloves in it for 1 hour.
5. You can hold the cloves of garlic in a 1% warm solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes or use the drug phytosporin-M.
When planting in autumn, the garlic must be planted at such a time that before the onset of frost the plants form only roots. Leaves may develop early in the planting period and winter frosts will damage the plants.
It is better to grow garlic on ridges 15-20 cm high: they warm up well, provide a favorable water-air regime of the soil. For better heating, the ridges and rows are oriented from north to south. The optimal planting pattern is one-line, with a row spacing of 20-25 cm. Large teeth are closed at a distance of 8-10 cm from each other, small ones - 5-6 cm, to a depth of 4-5 cm from the soil surface. After planting, it is useful to mulch the surface of the ridges with peat or humus (5-6 kg / m2), which improves the overwintering of garlic, contributes to better soil warming. For better snow retention in winter, branches can be thrown onto the garden bed.
Features of rutabaga
Rutabaga is a vegetable plant that is resistant to drought and frost. She is a relative of radish, horseradish, turnip, turnip, radish, mustard and cabbage (all of its types). Fodder beets grow for 2 years, while in the first year the formation of a leaf rosette and a root crop is observed, and in the second year, flower stalks and seeds grow. The leafy stem is quite high. Peristonised lyre-shaped leaf plates can be practically glabrous or pubescent. The part of the plant that is above the ground is colored gray. The brushes are composed of yellow flowers. The fruit is a long pod, which can be lumpy or smooth, inside it there are seeds of a globular shape and dark brown color. In a root crop, the shape directly depends on the variety and can be round-flat, oval, cylindrical or round. The pulp can be colored in various shades of yellow or white. Rutabaga tastes similar to turnips, but the former has a much higher nutritional value.
Outdoor cultivation of sweet peppers
In relatively warm regions, they try to grow peppers without shelter: it is in the sun that the most delicious fruits grow.
For pepper, you need a very fertile soil, ideal in terms of moisture and air permeability, and neutral in acidity. Loam, sandy loam or black soil are suitable. Since autumn, they carry out a deep digging of it with the introduction of fertilizers. For 1 m 2 take 1.5-2 buckets of compost, 60-80 g of superphosphate and 2-3 handfuls of ash. It is important that nightshade crops do not grow in this place before the pepper. The best predecessors are peas, cucumbers, cabbage, onions, garlic. In the spring, the garden bed is only slightly loosened.
Open ground transplant terms
The timing of disembarkation of seedlings depends on the region and on the current weather. It is necessary that the soil warms up to at least 14-16 o C, night temperatures do not fall below this level, and during the day it is quite warm. For example, in the Moscow region, such weather occurs no earlier than June 5, in the Lower Volga region after mid-May, and in the Urals and Siberia not earlier than mid-June. If the year turned out to be unsuccessful and the heat did not come on time, the seedlings should not be allowed to grow in the apartment. It is necessary to warm up the garden with the help of, for example, a film and plant the peppers under a temporary shelter.
Seedlings are planted on cloudy days, in the late afternoon. The landing technique is simple:
- Having leveled the bed, they dig in the right places with a scoop of holes. Tall varieties are planted after 35–45 cm, medium-sized varieties after 25–35 cm, and undersized varieties can be planted after 15 cm. Some large gaps are left between the rows. The hole should be slightly larger than a pot of seedlings: a handful of compost and a spoonful of ash are brought into it, mixed with the ground, and watered.
If the ground is already very dry, it is better to water the holes before planting the seedlings.
Good seedlings are easily removed from the cup with a lump of soil
In cloudy weather, you can pour from a watering can, but it's better still at the root
If the real summer has not yet come, it is advisable to cover the bushes with spunbond for a while.
Outdoor Pepper Care
Peppers are looked after almost like tomatoes, you just need to take into account that it is very thermophilic (it does not grow at temperatures below 13 ° C), it likes the soil to be constantly slightly moist, it urgently needs additional fertilizing. Peppers, unlike tomatoes, are watered throughout the season, except in rainy weather. However, waterlogging, leading to soil compaction, is just as harmful for it as overdrying. Therefore, systematic loosening is necessary. On average, irrigation is needed 1-2 times a week, water is used necessarily warmed up in the sun.
Most peppers are fed every 2-3 weeks. The first time - soon after planting the seedlings (after 10-15 days), at this time organic infusions are used. In subsequent dressings, organic matter and mineral fertilizers alternate. With the beginning of fruit growth, the amount of nitrogen is minimized, increasing the potassium content: wood ash is used in large quantities.
The formation of a bush mainly consists in the removal of stepchildren, but this is not required for all varieties. Basically, tall varieties are nestled, and undersized and most medium-sized varieties form to a minimum. Before proceeding with this procedure, you must familiarize yourself with the description of the variety. In most cases, shaping consists in removing everything that has grown below the first fork: leaves and small shoots. It is customary to pluck the crown bud - the one that appears near this fork. In tall peppers, the density of the bush is also monitored, clearly removing unnecessary shoots. If it is written that the bush is led in two or three stems, then one or two strong stepsons are left, respectively, the rest are removed. Tall varieties and some medium-sized varieties require tying to stakes.
The task of formation is to ensure the maximum number of side shoots of the second order
Video: growing pepper in the open field
Shortly before planting, repeat the mechanical processing of the site, loosening or digging, leveling and compacting the soil surface, after which the work is carried out in the following sequence:
- Planting furrows with a depth of 1 cm are formed on the surface of the bed, keeping a distance of 20–25 cm between them.
- Sowing is carried out in "nests", placing 2-3 seeds in each, with a planting step of 10-15 cm.
- Crops are mulched with a layer of humus and lightly powdered with ash.
At the stage of formation of the second pair of true leaves, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving one strong plant in each nest and removing unnecessary ones. Re-thinning is carried out as needed, when the roots reach 3-4 cm in diameter, rejecting weak and damaged plants.